Find out how fun and exciting the career of your dreams can be.

Skip alphabetical listing of letters, go to first item. Return to alphabetical listing of letters

Actors play characters in theater, film, TV, radio, and other media. Actors interpret scripts and perform roles that entertain, inform, or teach an audience.

Pursuing an acting career takes passion, dedication, and the willingness to share the spotlight. You might live in New York City or Los Angeles and wait tables while you attend countless cattle calls (mass auditions) just to be considered for a small walk-on role.

While most big-name stars and aspiring actors alike do live and work in New York City or Los Angeles, many actors can find work outside these hubs. Opportunities exist with regional theater companies, TV studios, radio stations, nightclubs, and even theme parks.

Actuaries decide how likely it is that various events will happen. Using their knowledge of statistics, finance, and business, they help create insurance policies, pension plans, and other financial plans.

To be alive is to face risks. Some are avoidable. For example, if you want to avoid earthquakes, don't move to California. But some risks are harder to control. People can get sick without warning or wind up in an auto accident. And some hardships are inevitable. Much as we hate to think about it, we all die.

Do you find these facts fascinating, if gruesome? If so, consider a career as an actuary. Actuaries make a profession of studying risk.

Administrative assistants and secretaries provide various office support services.

Administrative assistants and secretaries are talented, versatile people. If you have any doubt, stop by the school office and watch the secretary at work. You'll see him or her juggle a dozen tasks -- signing in a late student, answering the phone, sorting the mail -- all without batting an eye. 

Adult educators teach a variety of subjects to adults in places such as community colleges, adult high schools, university extension programs, and prisons.

Sometimes adults go to school because they have to. They may need to improve their English skills or computer skills or earn a high school diploma to get a better job. Other times, adults attend classes for fun. They might want to learn how to bake mouth-watering desserts or draw funny cartoons.

Whether they're in class out of necessity or for pleasure, adults are usually motivated to get the most out of class time. Their eagerness to learn makes teaching them a deeply rewarding experience.

Advanced-practice nurses diagnose and treat illnesses and provide health care. Most are also certified to prescribe medication.

You wake up one morning with awful flu symptoms and call your doctor. Unfortunately, she’s out of town, but the nurse practitioner (NP) is available instead. The NP examines you, cultures your throat, writes a prescription, and sends you on your way to recovery.

Today’s advanced-practice nurses (including NPs) perform tasks once reserved for medical doctors. They assist other medical professionals and manage patient care. And some specialize in fields such as pediatrics (working with children and teens) and oncology (working with cancer patients).

Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers use market research and employ various strategies to develop, promote, and sell their clients' products and services.

There’s a game plan behind every product that is sold -- even if that product is a person. Advertising, marketing, and public relations managers are the brains behind those strategies.

Marketing managers draw on market research to target the right audience; advertising managers are in charge of creating and placing ads; and public relations managers use subtler methods to get the word out. Of course, the roles of these professionals overlap, and their goal is the same: to earn bigger profits. With tools such as advertisements, brochures, and websites, they can make the difference between a success and a flop.

Advertising sales agents sell advertising to businesses and other organizations. They sell ad space in newspapers, magazines, direct mail circulars, and telephone directories and on TV, radio, websites, and billboards.

Advertising sales agents hold a wide range of jobs. Local sales agents work for specific media companies, such as newspapers and radio stations, selling ad space or airtime to local businesses. Other agents work in the advertising industry for companies that specialize in selling advertising and work on national ad campaigns. They act as go-betweens, bringing together businesses that need to advertise with media companies that have advertising to sell.

Instead of selling just one kind of advertising, sales agents often sell groups of ads that take advantage of a mix of media. These so-called integrated packages are a growing trend in the ad biz. A single package might include space in a magazine and on a website, along with TV airtime.

Aerospace engineers design all kinds of manned and unmanned aircraft and spacecraft, from small airplanes to satellites. They test and build new designs and work to improve existing machines.

In 1903, the Wright brothers’ first plane flew for twelve seconds and went only 120 feet. Today, aerospace engineers are working on supersonic ramjets. These scramjets, as they’re called, will take you from New York to Tokyo in only two hours. That’s a lot of progress for one century.

As an aerospace engineer, you could build satellites or defense systems. You could make airplanes faster and safer. You could design a spacecraft, a space station, or an explorer robot like the Mars-roving Spirit. If looking up at the sky starts you thinking about how to get there, you could be one of tomorrow’s aerospace engineers.

Agricultural scientists study farm crops and animals to improve their quality and yield. Food scientists research foods and develop new ways to preserve and package them.

In the old days, you sprinkled a lot of salt on your meat, hung it in your attic, and hoped for the best.

Today, thanks to agricultural and food scientists, we find an incredible range of choices on supermarket shelves. Even during the coldest months, we enjoy fruits and vegetables kept fresh by food preservation techniques, such as special plastic bags. And when we eat ice cream, we know exactly how much fat we’re digesting.

Agricultural engineers use science and math to meet agricultural challenges. They help farms grow better and more food, look for ways to conserve soil and water, and design tools and equipment.

At the beginning of the twentieth century, it took four farmers to grow enough food for ten people. By the end of the century, one farmer could feed one hundred.

Agricultural engineers have contributed to this dramatic improvement. They’ve invented machinery, improved production systems, and found ways to grow healthier and stronger plants.

Air traffic controllers coordinate the movement of air traffic, making sure that planes stay a safe distance apart during takeoff, in the air, and during landing.

While pilots might have the most glamorous job in the sky, it’s certainly not the only important one. Air traffic controllers are the men and women who sit above the tarmac in the control tower, managing traffic that no simple stoplight can handle.

They’re responsible for keeping order on busy runways and preventing crashes in the air. Some controllers direct traffic at the airport, while others direct traffic between airports.

Aircraft and avionics technicians inspect and repair airplanes and helicopters.

The pilot is not the only person who keeps you safe during a flight. Aircraft and avionics technicians maintain and repair everything from radar to landing gear.

Avionics technicians specialize in navigation, radio, radar systems, and other electronic and computer instruments and controls. Aircraft technicians check for wear and tear, using x-ray or magnetic equipment to look for cracks and punctures invisible to the human eye.

Aircraft pilots fly for commercial airlines, but they also deliver cargo, dust crops, spread seed for reforestation, give skydivers a lift, and pull advertising streamers. They might also test aircraft, direct fire-fighting efforts, monitor traffic, or even track criminals.

Imagine a job where, on any given day, you could find yourself in Paris, Tokyo, or New Delhi. Now imagine yourself in command of one top-notch, state-of-the-art piece of machinery -- a 747, for example, which can cruise through the clouds at 570 miles per hour.

Of course, sitting in the cockpit isn’t all fun and games. It’s serious stuff. Pilots are responsible for taking people from point A to point B -- safely. That’s why piloting is a profession requiring exceptional skill and lots of training.

Animal caretakers make sure that animals are clean, healthy, and happy.

Do you enjoy taking care of your pets? Have you always felt a special bond with animals? Becoming an animal caretaker is one way you can turn your interest in animals into a career.

The job might involve long hours and tough physical labor, but it’s important work: if an animal gets sick, the caretaker is often the first to know. And the close relationships you develop with the animals under your care can make that work deeply satisfying.

Announcers talk on radio or TV programs that inform and entertain. Some announcers also provide information to the audience at sporting or performing arts events.

Think of your favorite radio station or local news program and you can probably name a DJ or news reporter. These announcers are the faces and voices of broadcasting. Announcers on radio and TV read the news and weather reports, open and close programs, announce song titles and artists, introduce or read commercials, and interview guests.

Anthropologists study people and primates (such as chimps), researching their cultural, physical, and social development over time. Archaeologists investigate history by finding and studying the remains and objects a society leaves behind.

Why did new English words start popping up among the British colonists in North America? How were class distinctions in the New World different from those in the Old World? What can we learn about our ancestors from ancient skeletons and pottery fragments?

If you’re fascinated by questions like these, consider a career as an anthropologist or archaeologist. While some of these professionals are involved in research for its own sake, others use their skills in the world of business or government.

Aquaculturists raise fish and shellfish for commercial purposes, such as food and recreational fishing.

The demand for seafood is growing. However, overfishing has caused a decline in many species of fish and shellfish. That's why aquaculturists raise fish and shellfish for food and sport fishing in fisheries, such as ponds and floating pens. These agricultural specialists make sure that fish are healthy and safe for eating.

Some aquaculturists work in natural environments, like coastal areas, to ensure these sites are fished in responsibly. That way, they'll continue to produce fish and shellfish in the future.

Architects design buildings and oversee their construction.

Before any building is constructed, it exists in the mind’s eye of an architect. Architects design buildings in which people work, worship, play, and conduct the countless other activities of their lives.

Consider the building you’re in right now. Where are the windows placed? What materials were used to construct the building? How does the structure sit on the site it occupies? What style of architecture is used? And how do people use the building? The building’s architect once considered all these same questions.

Archivists care for permanent records and historically valuable documents. They may also participate in research activities based on archival materials.

Archivists may take care of papers, letters, diaries, clippings, legal documents, maps, films, videos, sound recordings, and other records. These professionals combine technical expertise in the preservation of documents with knowledge of information-management systems.

The tasks of archivists vary according to the type of collection they work with, be it historic manuscripts or living plants and animals. At a cultural-history museum, an archivist might research and document the return of artifacts to American Indian tribes. At a zoo, an archivist might keep records on the veterinary care of animals.

Art directors come up with the visual concepts for everything from billboard advertisements to magazine layouts to videos and websites. Not all work in advertising; some create the look of editorial publications, such as newspapers.

Have you ever wondered who came up with the look for those great jeans ads or that cool CD jacket? Behind every advertisement, magazine cover, video, or website is a big-picture person: the art director.

If you’d rather call the shots than carry them out, art directing just might be your thing -- as long as you’re ready to be a fountain of new ideas.

Arts administrators run arts programs that cover the gamut -- from finger-painting to photography; from ballet to belly dance; and from hip-hop to opera.

As an audience member at dance, music, or theater events, you've probably enjoyed watching others shine in the limelight. If you've ever performed onstage or seen your artistic efforts displayed in a newsletter or website (or even posted in the school hallway), you know the thrill of putting your best creative foot forward.

But for every artistic event, much of the work remains hidden. Arts administrators work behind the scenes to make sure artists keep creating and the public keeps appreciating art of every kind.

Athletic trainers work with athletes to prevent and treat injuries. They also play a key role in rehabilitation.

The year: 1996. The place: Atlanta. In her first vault, gymnast Kerri Strug falls and injures her ankle, badly. Should she go on to do her second vault? The team’s depending on her, but is it safe? As an athletic trainer, you’ll find yourself facing similar dilemmas, though you’ll more likely be at a high school basketball game than the Olympics.

Barbers and cosmetologists (also called hairdressers and hairstylists) cut, color, and style people's hair. Cosmetologists may also provide other services such as facial treatments.

Humans have always found ways to beautify themselves. Cleopatra wore eyeliner. And in ancient Asia and Greece, people used pumice to exfoliate (remove dead layers from) their skin. Some ideas about beauty change or cross cultural boundaries. For example, tattooing, a recent fad among Westerners, is a long-held tradition in other parts of the world.

As a personal-appearance worker, you'll keep an eye on changing trends, helping people keep up with the times and look their best.

Biological scientists study living organisms like animals, plants, and microbes. They also examine their relationships to the environment and other living things.

We have always been interested in the living world around us. To survive, we had to understand which animals and plants were dangerous to us and which were good to eat.

Today’s biologists still study living organisms, but they do so using the modern methods of science. These scientists of life look not only at plants and animals but also at microbes, microscopic organisms invisible to the naked eye. Biologists work in such fields as biochemistry, aquatic biology, botany, microbiology, zoology, and ecology.

Biomedical engineers design and develop devices and systems -- from artificial organs to medical equipment -- that solve health problems.

In 2001, a doctor in the U.S. performed gall bladder surgery on a woman in France. Strange, but true. The surgeon used a remote to control a robotic arm that performed the actual work on the patient.

The surgical robotic arm is an exciting biomedical engineering achievement. But it’s far from the only one. Biomedical engineers work to make prostheses (artificial body parts) better, diagnostic procedures more accurate, and drugs easier to take. Thanks to biomedical engineers, becoming healthy and staying that way is getting easier every day.

Buyers and purchasers look for the highest-quality products at the lowest cost.

Everyone has a favorite store. Maybe yours is the sports store at the mall. Whichever it is, you shop there for a reason, maybe because it sells the best products for the lowest prices. If so, they have top-notch buyers. These pros stalk the wholesale marketplace -- scouring catalogs, visiting manufacturers, going to fashion shows and trade shows -- looking for products that fly off the shelves. That's why loyal customers like you keep coming back for more.

Buyers look for products to resell to the public or to retailers. Purchasers, on the other hand, buy supplies and services for use by the organizations they work for. Working for organizations as different as private corporations and the U.S. military, purchasers order everything from paper clips to tanks.

Camera operators film TV programs and commercials, videos, and movies. Film and video editors choose images from those that camera operators capture to create a final product.

Whether capturing a political protest for the local news, putting together a weekly cable TV program, or creating a scene for a new action movie, the decisions you make as a camera operator or film and video editor will require a combination of creative and technical skills. You'll need a good eye and a steady hand to choose interesting material, decide how to present it, and pick the right equipment or software to use.

Chefs plan menus and create meals in a variety of settings, from cafeterias to upscale restaurants. There are many levels of chefs, from prep chefs to executive.

If your vision of a chef is someone in a puffy white hat who races around the kitchen making sure each order is filled, you’re only partly right. True, a chef’s job revolves around creating meals that taste and look great. But there are all kinds of chefs: while cuisine, sous (assistant), and pastry chefs take care of the cooking, executive chefs spend most of their time planning menus and supervising others.

The hours are long, and the stress runs high, but if the idea of choosing between paprika and red pepper flakes makes your pulse race, this career may be just your cup of tea.

Chemical engineers use chemistry to bridge the gap between scientific invention and manufactured goods.

Chemical engineers know that there’s more to creating a great product than coming up with a new idea. They figure out how to turn new ideas into products that can be mass-produced.

Whether they’re making perfume with a fragrance that lasts or cookies that taste homemade or tape that sticks in the rain, chemical engineers are using their understanding of chemicals and chemical reactions.

Chemists research chemicals -- the building blocks of all materials. Materials scientists conduct research on the structures and compositions of materials.

You may not realize it, but the products of chemistry play a big role in our daily lives. Chemists and materials scientists create the building blocks for medicines like Prozac or products such as plastic bags. Even the chocolate, marshmallow, and banana flavors of the processed food you eat were created in a lab by food chemists.

Chemists and materials scientists working in applied research come up with new products for industrial, commercial, and medical use.

Child care workers care for infants and children in their own homes, in the children's homes, in day care centers, or in preschool programs. They attend to infants' and children's basic needs and organize activities for them to participate in.

At the most basic level, child care workers look after children while parents are at work. They take care of kids' needs for things like food, play, and safety.

While the pay in this field isn’t high, the work offers many other rewards. Child care workers can have a profound and lifelong impact on children, helping them learn how to handle feelings, express themselves, cooperate, and much more. Many children love their child care workers with an intensity usually reserved for family members. And they remember these key adults with respect and appreciation for the rest of their lives.

Child, family, and school social workers help children and families cope with social and psychological problems that may arise at school, at home, at work, or in the larger community.

In an ideal world, every family would be stable and supportive. Every child would be happy at home and at school.

Yet in reality, many children and families face daunting challenges. For example, single parents struggle to raise kids while working. Children are exposed to violence. Teens may become parents before they're ready. Child, family, and school social workers help kids and families get back on track so they can lead healthy, happy lives.

Chiropractors assess the total health of their patients and use nonsurgical, drug-free treatment methods that include manipulating the spinal column.

Athletes. Dancers. Office workers who sit for long hours each day. Movers who lift and carry heavy furniture. These are just some of the people who suffer from back- and spine-related injuries. Some consult with medical doctors, but others prefer the expertise of chiropractors because of their overall approach to health.

Chiropractors evaluate and treat a patient’s muscular, nervous, and skeletal systems. They also explore how diet, exercise, environment, and heredity contribute to a patient's pain and injuries.

Choreographers create new dance routines and develop their own interpretations of existing dances for ballets, musicals, and other forms of entertainment. At rehearsals, choreographers instruct and lead dancers to achieve their vision.

Do you want to form your own modern dance company? Create the dance moves for music videos? Whatever your choreography aim, you’ll need to know a lot about people as well as dance. After all, choreographers work with all kinds of people, from dancers to directors.

Most choreographers get their start as dancers, but some come from related fields, such as performance art or theatrical directing. As a choreographer, you may work on a freelance basis or as an artist in residence for a dance or opera company. You could also work in film or TV or at a private dance school, college, or university.

Civil engineers design, plan, and run large building projects, such as bridges, buildings, roads, dams, and water-supply systems.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the seven wonders of the ancient world still standing. And it does make people wonder: How did the Egyptians, working over forty-five hundred years ago, ever manage to build it? With a base that spreads over 13.1 acres and a height of 481 feet, it would be quite a project even today. Yet the Egyptians engineered ways to meet the huge challenges they faced. And they did it all without power tools, computers, trucks, or even pulleys.

Today’s civil engineers have it a lot easier, but their projects are no less fascinating. They help construct the wonders of the modern world.

Clinical laboratory technologists examine body fluids and tissues for signs of disease. They conduct and supervise complex tests and manage labs for hospitals, doctors, diagnostic-services companies, blood banks, clinics, and more.

With a latex-gloved hand, you place a glass slide under your microscope and adjust the magnification. This specimen contains cells from a patient with a bad sore throat. Your job is to find out if the patient has strep throat. The doctor needs to know because a Streptococcus infection can lead to serious diseases such as pneumonia.

Looking through the eyepiece, you spot the classic shape of Streptococcus pyogenes. Without tests like this one, today’s high-quality health care would be impossible.

Clinical psychologists help people with mental or emotional problems adjust to life. Some help people cope with physical illnesses or injuries. Others help people facing crises such as divorce or the loss of a loved one.

Have you ever heard the term "stream of consciousness"? We use it to describe words that flow nonstop, following a person's thoughts as they move freely from one topic to the next. The term was created by William James, who is considered one of the fathers of psychology.

With gentle guidance from skilled clinical psychologists, people can ride their stream of consciousness to surprising memories and insights. These memories and insights often play a key role in healing.

Coaches are responsible for the training and development of athletes and sports teams. Scouts, who at the college level might also work as coaches, search for talented players who would contribute to team success.

Most athletes are highly goal oriented, but when the going gets tough, their determination may flag.

As a coach, you’ll need to work hard to keep up their spirits and their motivation -- even when your athletes are stuck in a losing streak or can’t seem to beat their own best times. You’ll also evaluate their strengths and weaknesses to help them improve their game.

Community organizers and activists work on the local level to create positive social change. They help communities come together to solve problems.

Cesar Chavez (1927–1993) was only a child when his parents lost their farm and had to become migrant workers, moving from farm to farm. By the time he left school after eighth grade to work full-time, he'd already attended thirty different schools.

In 1962, with activist Dolores Huerta, Chavez created the United Farm Workers, a union dedicated to defending the rights of farm workers. He led many successful strikes and boycotts, inspiring millions to join his cause. Fifty thousand people attended his funeral.

Composers write music -- from classical to show tunes to rock. They create written compositions, called scores, to be performed by musicians and singers. The term "composer" includes singer-songwriters such as Bob Dylan.

It's easy to think of composers as dead European guys who wore frock coats and knickerbockers and wrote music for royalty. Yet music composition is alive and well. From Stephen Sondheim to Quincy Jones to Yoko Ono, composers today represent every segment of society -- including teens. And the music written is just as varied, reflecting the bounty of musical styles our world has to offer.

Computer and information systems managers supervise computer professionals as well as technology projects big and small.

How are worms different from viruses, and how can we protect our computer networks against them? Is the latest technology worth paying top dollar for? What’s the best way to sell products online? The computer questions facing businesses are many -- that’s no surprise. But it may surprise you to know that it takes more than computer genius to answer them.

Computer and information systems managers coordinate the work of computer professionals and help top managers make crucial business decisions. And, in some cases, they are top managers.

Computer hardware engineers design and develop computer hardware, such as computer chips, circuit boards, modems, and printers. They also test hardware and supervise its installation.

In the 1940s, high tech meant the ENIAC computer. What did the room-sized machine do? It could do five thousand additions and subtractions per second. It solved equations. And that’s all it did. In other words, ENIAC was a gigantic calculator.

If you’re using a typical computer today, you could be doing research, writing a report, instant-messaging a friend, and listening to music -- all at the same time. Thanks to computer hardware engineers, computers can do a lot more than they used to. And they’ve gotten smaller and faster, too.

Computer programmers write, test, and maintain the instructions that computers must follow to land airplanes, sell products online, build machines, share information, and so much more.

If you picture yourself as a computer programmer, you may already know a computer language. Once you know multiple computer languages, you’ll be able to communicate throughout the world. 

In addition to mastering programming languages like C++ and Java, you’ll also need to communicate easily with people. After all, you’ll often work with a team and sometimes with the users of the products you develop. At the end of the day, the key to programming is language.

Computer scientists come up with new ways of improving computers. They often work on a more abstract level than other computer professionals.

Imagine a time when computers didn’t impact our daily lives. Now imagine new ways that computers will influence our lives in the future. How can they make your life easier, safer, healthier, and richer? Computer scientists are searching for the answers.

Computer scientists are thinkers, designers, architects, and innovators. In a world where success is measured by speed, efficiency, and access, computer scientists are inventing new languages, tools, and methods so that computers will continue to enhance our lives in new ways.

Computer support specialists, also known as help-desk technicians, provide technical assistance to customers by identifying and solving their hardware and software problems.

Are you the person friends and family call when they can’t figure out what’s wrong with their computer?  Do you enjoy solving what others think of as insurmountable tasks and watching them breathe a sigh of relief as you rescue their lost document or rid their computer of a virus? Do you read the latest computer magazines and keep up with the best new hardware and software products? 

If you answered yes to most of these questions, a career as a computer support specialist may be for you.

Computer systems analysts create new computer systems and improve existing technology and business processes.

A new website for learning foreign languages is about to start up. A team of experts is ready to get to work -- from the people who create the content to the people who write the computer programs that drive the site. But before the programmers can start, a systems analyst must design the best way for customers to interact with the site. She has to decide everything from how they’ll sign up and pay to how they’ll use the site to master new vocabulary throughout the online learning process.

Computer systems analysts create technology solutions for large and small businesses and other organizations. They start by deciding what hardware and software will be needed. They then develop or adapt software to meet those needs.

Conservation scientists manage natural resources, such as rangeland and water. They develop programs that both make resources productive and protect them.

How do you manage a ranch so that it supports the most cattle while maintaining the land so wildlife can live there? Solving this type of issue is the job of a range manager. A soil conservationist, on the other hand, might figure out how to restore farmland where the soil has been worn away. A water conservationist may look at how to assure a clean water supply for a growing town.

All of these scientists make complex decisions to come up with plans that balance economic goals with environmental impact -- and meet government regulations.

Conservators care for and repair art objects and artifacts.

Conservators strive to protect precious objects -- everything from medieval tapestries, Chinese porcelain, and Mexican murals to classic comic books -- and to restore them to their former glory.

Conservators know a lot about art history and chemistry. They also work with a wide range of professionals, including archaeologists, art dealers, interior designers, architectural preservationists, and even nuclear physicists.

Construction and building inspectors examine new and old structures to make sure that they are built soundly and follow building codes and other laws.

As a construction or building inspector, you’ll carry a lot of responsibility. You will inspect the construction sites of homes, office buildings, bridges, and other structures to decide if the builders are following the building code and if the structure is safe. Specialists called home inspectors look closely at homes that people hope to buy. Their verdict on a home’s foundation, electrical system, or overall safety can make or break a sale.  

You have to know a lot about construction materials and methods, electrical and mechanical systems, and building code to work as an inspector. And you won’t learn everything at school; you’ll need several years’ experience in construction before you begin this career.

Construction managers plan and coordinate construction projects, including residential, commercial, and civil (or public works) building.

Large construction projects may take years or even decades to complete -- think of a high-rise office building or a subway system. On projects this complicated, teams of construction managers handle different steps. One team might be responsible for estimating costs. Another team might schedule the activities of the various subcontractors. And yet another team might work on-site supervising the construction work in progress.

On smaller projects, one team may tackle several, or even all, of these functions. Regardless of the size of a job, it takes a group of dedicated construction managers to keep the project running on schedule and within budget. 

Copy editors review text to make sure that it is free of errors and is clearly written. They also ensure that writing follows the publisher's style and editorial policy.

"Twenty-five" or "25"? "PhD" or "Ph.D."? Being a copy editor means paying close attention to differences like these. Copy editors review text to ensure it is easy to understand and follows the publisher's style. And they make sure that the tone of the writing suits the publication’s audience, whether it's teens, scientists, or art lovers.

Copy editors also rewrite text or suggest changes, such as reordering paragraphs, to make the writing stronger. On top of all that, they correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Copywriters use the written word to entice consumers to buy products.

Just do it. Think different. Got milk? If topping slogans like these is a challenge that gets your adrenaline going, you could be a copywriter in the making. Just as songwriters use catchy hooks to write hit songs, copywriters use clever wordplay to write ads that people don’t forget. Whether it’s a print ad, radio script, billboard, or promotional flyer, it’s the copywriter’s job to lure the consumer through the written word.

Craft artists create works of art that have a practical as well as an artistic purpose, including ceramics, jewelry, art glass, quilts, furniture, welding, and weavings.

If making useful art is not just a hobby but your passion, you might consider pursuing a career as a craft artist. Whether you’re into throwing pots, blowing glass, welding sculpture, carving wood, embroidering linen, or weaving rugs, the objects you create are becoming increasingly popular in the marketplace. They can be found in a huge number of private homes and public collections around the world. Maybe your creations will become the next hot collectible.

Crop farmers till, plant, fertilize, cultivate, harvest, and sell a variety of fruits, vegetables, grains, and cotton.

You might grow heirloom tomatoes in Pennsylvania or acres of wheat in Kansas. Either way, you’ll have to know what your plants need, from water to fertilizer. And that’s not all. You’ll also need to know how to run a business, finding buyers and hiring workers.

Farming involves a thousand different tasks, but there’s satisfaction in making things grow and knowing that you’re helping to feed the people of the world. 

Curators run the educational, research, and public service activities of museums, zoos, and other institutions.

Curators do much more than handle artwork or artifacts and design museum and zoo exhibits. The job of managing a collection is broad-based. It involves working with people as much as, if not more than, the pieces in the collection.

Curators work with museum educators, zookeepers, publicists, and publishers to produce exhibits complete with special events and publications. And they work closely with other curators, museum directors, and board members to grow the museum, gallery, or zoo collection -- whether dealing with artwork, plants, or living animals.

Dairy farmers breed, care for, and milk dairy cows. They also process the milk for drinking or for use in other dairy products.

Got milk? Dairy farmers do -- with the help of a herd of milk-producing cows, that is. Some dairy farmers sell milk only, but others process their milk into groceries like cheese, ice cream, and butter.

While in movies dairy farmers may squeeze milk from teats by hand, in real life the process is high-tech. Thanks to health and sanitary regulations, dairy farmers now use special equipment that protects milk from germs.

Dancers express ideas and emotions through dance forms such as ballet, modern, jazz, ethnic, and folk dance. In this demanding and competitive field, dancers challenge their bodies and their minds.

While you may dream about becoming a principal with the American Ballet Theatre, there are many different options in the wide world of professional dance. You may dance with smaller classical companies, modern troupes, or folkloric and ethnic dance groups. You could dance in musicals, pop music videos, and commercial TV productions.

However, finding steady work in the fiercely competitive world of professional dance is never easy. It takes both passion and patience to pursue a career in this demanding field.

Database administrators organize, track, and store information for businesses and other organizations. They also design and coordinate database security systems.

When you created a My Organizer account on this website, you answered questions about yourself and came up with a password. But where does all that information go? How is it stored and then promptly retrieved each time you log in?

Just ask our database administrators. Thanks to their efforts, your data and the data of thousands of other users remains secure and accessible.

Dentists prevent, diagnose, and treat health problems of the mouth. Most dentists are general practitioners, but some specialize in areas such as orthodontics (straightening teeth with braces) and endodontics (providing root canal treatment).

Dentists search for the culprits behind pain and disease. They delve into countless mouths to remove tooth decay, fill cavities, and repair fractured teeth. They also perform corrective surgery on gums and supporting bones. And among their less serious but more popular tasks is the whitening and reshaping of teeth to enhance their patients' smiles. 

Like other health care professionals, dentists also work to prevent disease. They inspire their patients to do so as well, encouraging healthy diets and good oral hygiene. 

Dietitians and nutritionists provide medical nutrition therapy, plan food and nutrition programs, and oversee food preparation.

Eating right is one of the best preventive medicines there is. But people don’t always know what’s good for them. That’s where dietitians and nutritionists come in.

These pros work closely with a wide variety of people, spreading the good word about proper nutrition. Their duties vary, depending on their job. For example, they might develop nutrition programs for hospital patients, advise clients on losing weight, or prepare reports on the benefits of dietary fiber.

Directors work closely with actors, designers, choreographers, and playwrights to manage the planning and production of theatrical works, including plays, films, musicals, and TV programs.

Directors make many of the creative decisions that bring a dramatic production to life. They have a part in almost every aspect of producing a play, film, or TV program. They must be creative artists as well as knowledgeable technicians. Active onstage and behind the scenes, they interpret scripts, communicate their vision to set and costume designers, audition and select cast members, manage rehearsals, and coach actors.

Drafters create technical drawings and plans that are used in construction, architecture, and engineering. Their drawings show details and dimensions, explain procedures, and list materials.

You’ve probably heard of Leonardo da Vinci as the artist who painted the Mona Lisa. But did you know that he was also a highly skilled draftsman? An engineer, scientist, and architect, da Vinci produced many more drafts of his scientific ideas than actual paintings. His notebooks contain designs for mechanical weapons, diving suits, seacraft, and a flying machine.

Today’s drafters have it a lot easier than da Vinci did in the fifteenth century. Computers allow drafters to change their drawings, make copies, and fill in details in seconds. They can make 3-D models and preview the whole construction process. That’s a big help when you’re making plans for everything from bridges and skyscrapers to toys and toasters.

Economists study the buying and selling of products and services, and analyze the factors that influence these transactions.

Today’s global economy bears little resemblance to the simple local barter-and-trade systems of yesterday. It is a vast and intricate system in which a hurricane that affects oil production in the Gulf of Mexico can send ripples through the economies of every nation on earth.

Economists seek to understand this system and use their knowledge to make predictions and decisions.

Editors review writers' work and make suggestions or changes to make the text stronger.

Behind every great writer is a fabulous editor. Magazines, newspapers, and websites, just to name a few publications, all employ editors to guide and encourage writers. Editors work in all kinds of settings, from busy newsrooms to corporate offices, to ensure that organizations get their messages to the public.

The titles and duties of editors vary a great deal, depending on where they work and exactly what they do. For example, developmental editors work with authors on novels and other long pieces to make sure the text is clear and meets the publisher's expectations. At newspapers, assignment editors match reporters to stories while executive editors make decisions about what news to cover and how to approach it.

Education administrators provide direction and day-to-day management of day care centers, preschools, schools, and colleges and universities. They also oversee educational programs for other institutions such as museums, businesses, and job-training organizations.

"If you don't settle down, I'll send you to the principal's office!" For eons, it seems, teachers have used this threat to keep order in the classroom. It's not the best advertisement for the job of principal, to say the least.

But in reality, principals -- as well as other education administrators such as assistant principals, school district administrators, and college and university deans -- have highly rewarding and challenging jobs. They aren't simply disciplinarians -- they are the leaders of entire communities of learners.

Electrical engineers develop and oversee electrical systems and equipment. They work with everything from power grids to computers and telephones to cars.

Turn on a light. Turn on a computer. Turn on a TV. Rev your engine, if you have one. Do you wonder why it works? Do you ever take apart a new gadget when you get it? Or look at something and think, “Hey, I can make that do more”?

If you’re intrigued by the machines around you and the power that makes them run, you have a lot in common with electrical engineers.

Electronics technicians install, care for, and repair electronic equipment.

As an electronics technician, you might service the industrial controls on a factory floor. Or you might repair missile control systems for the government. Or you could specialize in cars and trucks, installing and repairing sound and alarm systems. 

Wherever your future takes you, you’ll be working with computer programs, automated systems, and, of course, electricity. Many industries today, from manufacturing to telecommunications, depend on electrical equipment -- as well as the people who keep that equipment running safely and efficiently.

Elementary, middle, and high school teachers work in public or private schools, preparing children for the work world or college. They also try to inspire a lifelong love of learning in their students.

If you want to become a teacher, it's probably because of your experiences in the classroom. Maybe you find inspiration in great teachers or simply your own love of learning. With a career in school teaching, you'll be able to share that love and pass along the skills and knowledge kids need to get a start in life.

Under the supervision of a doctor, EMTs and paramedics manage medical emergencies outside of a hospital. EMTs are classified as either first responders, basic, intermediate, or paramedics, depending on their level of training and experience.

Your day -- or night -- of work might include helping a homeless person, stabilizing an asthma attack, and responding to possible domestic violence. Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a special breed: they think on their feet, stay calm, and assess health risks in an emergency.

Paramedics are the most highly trained EMTs. They give drugs intravenously (through the veins), operate defibrillators and other specialized equipment, and can be involved in a patient’s move from ambulance to emergency room.

Engineering managers oversee engineers, scientists, and technicians who design and develop machinery, products, and systems. Science managers direct the research and development projects of life and physical scientists.

Whether checking the work done by an engineer or directing a team of medical scientists on a biomedical project, engineering and science managers work on two levels at once.

Understanding complex science and math concepts is only the beginning. They also need to know how to translate those concepts to customers. And they use management skills to help the engineers and scientists they work with meet deadlines and complete projects.

Engineering technicians use math, science, and engineering skills to work on a variety of projects in a wide range of fields. They have less responsibility than engineers and their work is more hands-on.

Engineering technicians help turn ideas into reality. Assisting engineers or scientists, or working on their own, they use their technical skills to come up with practical solutions to a variety of problems.

Depending on their specialty and work setting, their duties include everything from setting up and maintaining equipment in a research lab to drafting plans for new designs on a computer to inspecting an assembly line.

Environmental educators develop and teach programs about nature for people of all ages.

Are you passionate about nature and eager to pass that love on to others? Environmental educators, also known as naturalists and interpreters, teach students about natural resources.

Environmental educators might do their teaching outside, while hiking, canoeing, or sitting around a campfire, for example. They often work for the government, schools, and nonprofit organizations in camps, parks, nature centers, environmental programs, and museums. Being in beautiful settings and participating in outdoor activities are two of the bonuses of this job. However, most opportunities are part-time, short-term, and low paying.

Environmental engineers use math and science to address environmental challenges such as hazardous waste and pollution. They also study the impact on the environment of proposed construction projects.

Back in 1910, President Theodore Roosevelt stressed the importance of treating our natural resources well. He said that we must pass them on to the next generation improved -- not impaired.

Environmental engineers work toward that goal. They help cities and construction companies find ways to build that don’t damage the environment. They help to clean up environmental problems from the past. They work with factories so they pollute less. Environmental engineers do their part to make sure that the earth will be in good condition for those who live here tomorrow.

Environmental scientists use ideas from the life and physical sciences to protect natural resources, such as forests and water.

Environmental scientists use their expertise to protect natural resources. If you're interested in chemistry, you might examine how certain chemicals affect plants, animals, and people. If you're interested in ecology, you might research the way rainfall, temperature, pollutants, and human activity affect an area.

As our population grows, we will need environmental scientists to preserve water, give advice on land-use and building projects, study and design sites for waste disposal, control pollution, and repair damaged natural areas. Whatever your focus, you'll work to solve some of the most serious problems facing the world today.

Exhibit designers and museum technicians plan, design, and put together exhibits and displays in museums, galleries, zoos, and other cultural institutions.

Visit the National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tennessee. There you can step onto a 1950s-era bus and hear the driver tell you to move to the back. A statue of Rosa Parks sits at the front with her head held high. In the Maritime Museum in Barcelona, Spain, you can climb aboard a full-scale reproduction of a sixteenth-century ship and watch projected images of the crew at their oars.

In a retrospective traveling from one museum to another, you can view the work of a single artist. As you pass before her paintings, you watch her mature through the decades and read about her influences. In zoos all over the world, you can view animals ranging from primates to panthers in exhibits re-creating their natural habitats.

Fashion designers use flair and know-how to create everything from hospital uniforms to the eye-popping outfits worn by rock stars and models.

If you spend endless hours poring through fashion magazines or putting together your own new looks, you may want to consider a career in fashion design. Using their flair for color and style, designers create trendy new fashions as well as practical garments, such as sportswear. Fashion design is also a labor of love, requiring long hours and little chance of superstardom -- but for many, the work itself is the reward.

Federal law enforcement agents work to stop violations of federal law, from bank robbery to drug trafficking and terrorist activity.

With September 11, 2001, behind us and the constant threat of terrorism ahead, the FBI reports a “critical need” for more special agents -- and that’s just one of many roles you could play in this profession. As a federal agent, you could investigate corporate scandals, work to stop drug smuggling, search luggage for bombs, and much more. And you’ll have to be good at keeping secrets: the job requires confidentiality at all costs.

Financial analysts help businesses and other organizations come up with investment strategies to meet their financial goals.

Do you get psyched about stocks and bonds? Is the business section the first place you flip to in the Sunday paper? If so, then you should think about becoming a financial analyst.

If you do, your main responsibility will be spotting stock market trends and keeping tabs on up-and-coming companies. You’ll also make predictions about the economic health of various industries. Why? So you can help businesses make good investment decisions.

Financial managers oversee the monetary concerns of businesses and other organizations.

Is it better to spend the last of the money for senior prom on decorations or food? Is it better to spend more money on the class trip and go to an amusement park or save money and visit a museum?

These are challenging decisions, but if they’re challenges you’d enjoy meeting, then consider becoming a financial manager. In this career, you’ll have to make risky financial decisions -- and convince others that you’re right.

Fine artists create visual art, usually specializing in a specific type, such as painting or sculpture. Their goals may be many: to create something of beauty, to trigger emotion, and to make people think.

Imagine a world without art -- no paintings, no sketches, no statues in the parks. A world without art would be pretty empty, dull, and cold. So even though people may try to tell you otherwise, and even though you probably won’t make your living at it, art does matter.

But even if you do become one of the lucky few who can pay the bills with art, you’ll need to let go of any romantic visions you have of working day and night to create a masterpiece. Trade them for the more realistic picture of a small businessperson balancing creative work with bookkeeping and marketing efforts.

Food service managers oversee the daily operations of restaurants as well as kitchens and cafeterias in places like schools, hospitals, and hotels.

No one is more involved with the excitement of a kitchen than a food service manager. They make sure that the glasses are clean, the tablecloths are white, and the food is fresh.

Whether filling in for an absent chef or putting out a kitchen fire, managers are responsible for it all. Managers help plan menus, order food, and hire and fire staff. And the very last complaint you’ll hear from them is that their job is dull.

Foreign Service officers promote American political and business interests, provide information and advice about their host countries to U.S. policymakers, arrange cultural exchanges, and help Americans traveling abroad.

In September 2004, five Americans took jobs teaching English at Islamic schools in Indonesia. Besides teaching English, they were there to help Indonesians learn more about the United States in the face of growing anti-American sentiment in Muslim countries. An administrator at an Islamic school dreamed up the idea. A Foreign Service officer helped make it a reality, and the teachers were warmly welcomed.

Foreign Service officers, also called diplomats, work at over 265 locations around the world. They help build bridges between the United States and other countries.

Forensic scientists, sometimes called crime laboratory analysts, provide scientific information and expert opinions to judges, juries, and lawyers.

Forensic science is more complex than TV might lead you to believe. In 1991, a postal worker in Phoenix, Arizona was accused of murdering a waitress. At the trial, a forensic scientist testified that a bite mark on the victim matched the suspect's teeth. The postal worker was convicted and sentenced to death.

Years later, other forensic scientists conducted DNA testing of saliva found on the victim's clothing. The testing revealed that the postal worker was innocent and identified the true murderer. Forensic science helped condemn an innocent man -- and then it redeemed him. It is a field constantly growing and changing.

Foresters develop, manage, use, and protect woodlands and other natural resources, such as water. Forestry technicians help foresters, mostly doing hands-on work outdoors, such as fighting fires or caring for trees in a nursery.

How do you manage a forest so that people can enjoy it for recreation while the needs of the wildlife in the area are also met? How do you protect a forest's water supply while ensuring that it produces a good harvest of trees for a timber company? Foresters often have to make tough decisions to come up with plans that balance economic goals with environmental impact -- all while meeting government regulations.

General practitioners, also known as family doctors, are often a patient's main doctor. They perform yearly checkups, treat a variety of conditions, and refer patients to specialists.

Have you ever wondered how general practitioners (GPs) know so much? How they are able to recognize health problems as different as strep throat, pulled muscles, allergic reactions, ulcers, and asthma -- sometimes all before lunch?

GPs are trained to both see the big picture and zoom in on the problem’s cause. And if they can’t fix the problem, it’s their job to refer the patient to a specialist who can.

Geographers analyze the use of space on the earth's surface and the effects of that use. They specialize in many areas, including economic geography, cultural geography, and physical geography.

The next time you take a trip, volunteer as navigator and try using a map to figure out the best way to get there from here. The next time you walk by a construction site, ask yourself questions like these: Why is this spot right for this building? Are there physical factors, such as the presence of a hill? How about economic and political reasons, such as a lack of low-income housing in the area?

If you're interested in such questions and activities, you might enjoy working as a geographer. Geographers tackle a wide variety of tasks, from research to mapmaking to advising cities on how best to use land. As a geographer, your work will reach beyond the land to include the people who use it.

Surveyors use measurements to determine land, air, and water boundaries. Surveying technicians help them by making measurements out in the field. Cartographers make maps using physical, social, and historical information. Photogrammetrists use aerial photos to fill in details on maps.

How high is Mount Everest? To find out, you need only turn to the nearest encyclopedia or computer. But the answer wasn’t always so easy to come by. It wasn’t until 1852, during the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, that the mountain was recognized as the world’s highest peak. As you can guess from the survey’s name, math played a key role in the work of the surveyors.

Geographic specialists (including surveyors, cartographers, surveying technicians, and photogrammetrists) use math as well as computers, aerial photography, and even satellites to measure and map the globe. They also help construction teams and property owners find the best places to build.

Geoscientists study the earth's structure and composition. They study its history and evolution, rocks, internal structure and core, oceans, and resources like gas and oil.

Rarely do we consider the earth as something active -- we usually think of it as a solid piece of rock. But in fact, it’s a dynamic system with a lot going on. That’s easy to see when there’s an earthquake or a volcanic eruption. Geoscientists study our constantly changing planet. They pay special attention to the earth’s physics and the chemical relationship between the core, crust, and atmosphere. 

Geoscientists specialize in specific areas. Oceanographers, for instance, study the geology, biology, and chemistry of the oceans. Hydrologists study the way water circulates both on the earth’s surface and underground. Seismologists study earthquakes and earthquake faults.

Government executives and legislators work at the federal, state, and local levels to direct government activities and pass laws. These officials include the president and vice president of the United States, members of Congress, governors, and city council members.

Public officials tackle tough problems from homelessness to terrorism. They respond to various groups who each argue that their issue, whether it's lower taxes or a better recycling program, demands top priority.

Given all that public officials face, it's hard to imagine the perfect way to prepare for the job. Maybe that's why there isn't one. While most have been to law school, their backgrounds vary and depend in part on their interests. As one elected official said, "You can't run for office just because you want to be an elected official. You need to decide what your interests are and follow them. If they lead you to elected office, great."

Government lawyers work for state attorneys general, public defenders, district attorneys, and the courts. At the federal level, they investigate cases for the U.S. Department of Justice and other agencies.

One type of government lawyer, the public defender, works on behalf of underprivileged people convicted of crimes.

Will Maas, a lawyer with the Office of the Public Defender in San Francisco, is a shining example. This Vietnam vet, once profiled by PBS, feels driven to defend his clients as a way to heal from having killed during the war. Maas sums up his hard-earned compassion for humanity in this way: "All of us have been mad enough to murder."

Graphic designers work with type and images to create the look for CD inserts, books, magazines, posters, catalogs, and other products. Some also design websites.

If you’re fascinated by the differences between the fonts Times New Roman and Geneva -- or simply enjoy arranging photos on a page -- you may have a future in graphic design. One of the most practical paths for artsy people, graphic design requires not only a good eye but an ability to use the computer as a tool for achieving your vision.

Health educators study the latest health information and design programs to encourage healthier behavior and practices in their communities.

Did you know that one in every three children in the United States is overweight or close to it? Why? The reason has a lot to do with overeating and lack of exercise. If you become a health educator, you may help unhealthy children grow into healthy adults.

As a health educator, you’ll promote and improve the health of your community.  Whether you work in schools, senior centers, or public health institutions, you’ll find creative ways to educate people about healthy lifestyles.

Historians collect and interpret material from the past.

Historians look for the clues that tell us about the past. More important, they help us make sense out of it all. They may start by telling us the facts of everything from the travels of Lewis and Clark to the first moon landing, but they don’t stop there.

Historians go on to answer questions about the importance of these events, their causes, and their effects. They make connections between the world as it was and the world as it is.

Human resources managers help maintain working relationships between employers and employees. They oversee hiring, benefits, salaries, training, and more.

Human resources managers are the backbone of every company. They work with employers and employees. They have a wide range of responsibilities, which include answering questions about the company health plan, helping coworkers work out disagreements, and making sure that supervisors treat employees fairly.

You might work for a small company where you cover all areas of human resources or for a large company where you specialize. Either way, you’ll be responsible for making sure that everyone is happy.

Human-service assistant is a general term covering a large number of job titles, including mental health aide, life-skill counselor, and gerontology aide.

Think of all the people who need special help: the elderly, homeless families, pregnant teens, people with addiction problems. The list goes on. And some of these groups are growing.

Agencies need to provide for all of these people, yet they face tight budgets. Human-service assistants -- who receive less training and therefore less pay than social workers -- are stepping in and doing more of the work that used to be done by social workers. The responsibilities of human-service assistants vary greatly. They range from helping people with the chores of daily life to coaching disabled adults as they adjust to new jobs.

Illustrators create images for everything from books to greeting cards to advertisements. Many specialize, working mostly on children's books or medical illustrations, for example.

If drawing is your thing, take note: there are all kinds of avenues for illustrators. Whether used in medical textbooks, magazines, or children’s books, illustrations inform, educate, amuse, and, sometimes, just make the world a prettier place. Talent alone is not enough in this highly competitive field, but if you’re willing to work hard and apply your talents where they’re needed, you may not be a starving artist for long.

Imams are Muslim clergy (religious leaders) in mosques (Islamic places of worship) and in Muslim communities. They lead prayers, deliver sermons, and provide religious education and counseling.

Muslims, like Christians and Jews, trace their religion to the ancient figure of Abraham. The word "imam" in the Koran (the Muslim sacred text) refers to Abraham and other leaders.

Though anyone leading a Muslim prayer may be called an imam, in practice imams are revered leaders with years of study behind them. One of their many challenges is staying informed about Islamic interpretations of modern-day advancements, such as organ transplants, so they can help believers make wise decisions while remaining true to Islam.

Industrial designers work with engineers to design everyday goods, most of them mass produced.

Calvin Klein may have designed your jeans, but who designed the chair you’re sitting on? Industrial designers work behind the scenes to shape everyday products, from food packaging and appliances to toys and cars.

While their work may not seem glamorous, they serve a very vital function -- and they make better money than most other types of designers, too.

Industrial engineers consider factors such as location, inventory, and the needs of workers to create systems that help businesses and other organizations run better.

Suppose you had a great idea for a new product. Even better, suppose a lot of people wanted to buy it. First, congratulations! Second, how are you going to make it? How many workers will you need? How many items can they produce? What kind of system will help them make more? What kinds of parts will they need to make it? How much should you keep on hand?

An industrial engineer can help you answer these questions. Or, if answering questions like these sounds like an interesting challenge, you could become one.

The industrial production manager is in charge of planning, budgeting, and monitoring a plant's production schedule.

Though much of today’s manufacturing is now done by factories overseas, there are still a number of manufacturing plants in the United States. Many of these factories involve complicated systems of machinery, computers, and workers.

The industrial production manager is the person in charge of day-to-day operations, making sure it all works together as quickly and cheaply as possible, while still turning out a quality product.

Industrial psychologists work for businesses, helping to improve the working conditions and productivity of employees. They help companies hire, train, and manage employees. They also advise companies on ways of getting consumers interested in products and services.

Industrial psychologists have studied how to match the personalities of workers with various jobs. One theory argues that peoples' personalities can be described in terms of five traits, or qualities: outgoing, easygoing, responsible, stable, and open. Research shows that responsible, stable employees are valuable in any job. To succeed in jobs dealing with the public, workers must also be outgoing and easygoing.

Industrial psychologists have researched many other employment issues, from ensuring workplace justice to balancing roles at work and at home.

Instructional coordinators measure student learning, train teachers, develop and order educational materials, and help teachers learn how to use new technology. They often specialize in a subject such as math.

While you may never have heard of instructional coordinators, they play a vital role in the school community. They help schools meet government standards for what students achieve and how they achieve it. They keep an eye on student and teacher progress and recommend improvements. They seek out the best books and technology for classrooms and help everyone learn how to use them. Simply put, they help teachers teach and learners learn.

Insurance sales agents help people and companies choose insurance policies that protect their lives, health, and property.

Insurance sales agents may offer various kinds of insurance or specialize in a specific type of policy, such as health and long-term-care, life, or property insurance. People often get some information online about insurance policies, but many still depend on insurance sales agents to advise them on what type of coverage they need and help them choose which policy will best protect them. And insurance companies depend on these salespeople to bring in a steady stream of customers.

Interior designers design and furnish interiors of residential, commercial, or industrial buildings.

Good interior designers are able to create indoor spaces that not only look good but also work well. That is, their designs suit the intended purpose of the room -- whether it’s an office, a reception area, a child’s playroom, or a beauty salon. Each of these spaces has its own purpose, from raising workers’ productivity to providing a safe place for children to play, and therefore, its own design requirements.

Interpreters help individuals or groups communicate with each other by orally translating from one language to another.

From courtrooms to boardrooms, interpreters help people who speak different languages understand each other. They work in a range of situations, from business meetings to criminal trials to medical emergencies. Those who know American Sign Language interpret spoken language to sign language and vice versa. Since interpreters work on the spot and can’t go back to correct any mistakes they make, they need intense concentration.

Judges apply the law and oversee the legal process in courts according to local, state, and federal laws. They preside over cases concerning everything from traffic offenses to the rights of huge corporations.

Learned Hand (1872–1961) has been called the greatest American judge never to sit on the Supreme Court. Hand served as a federal district judge in Manhattan and as a judge on the Second Circuit Court of Appeals.

He was known for taking cases that other judges found too complicated. He was also renowned for being open-minded and fair. In his most famous speech, he defined the spirit of liberty as "the spirit which is not too sure that it is right." Hand's legal opinions are still quoted today.

Landscape architects design and create outdoor spaces using plants, trees, structures, and other natural and human-made elements.

Landscape architects create outdoor areas that beautify and accent the buildings they surround. But they do more than design around buildings. They also create large open spaces, such as parks and golf courses, and help conserve and restore natural resources, such as forests.

Landscape architects make these outdoor spaces user-friendly, sustainable, and pleasing to the senses. To do so, they draw on their knowledge of design, construction, ecology, botany, horticulture (the study and practice of growing plants), and soil science.

Librarians help people find information in sources such as books, magazines, and the Internet. They collect, catalog, and organize information. Increasingly, they use computers to do these tasks.

In our era of the "information explosion," it seems that just about anything you want to know is a mouse click away. But do you ever feel overwhelmed by all the data on the Internet? Have you ever worried about whether the source you found for your research paper is accurate?

If so, go to the pros -- or consider becoming one. Today's librarians are experts in using technology to help others find all types of information.

Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) give patients basic bedside care in hospitals, nursing homes, doctors' offices, private homes, and other settings. They keep an eye on the health of patients and report their progress to doctors and registered nurses.

You’re in the hospital recovering from surgery. The surgeon stops by to check on you, and the registered nurse administers postoperative treatments, but it is the licensed practical nurses (LPNs) -- also known as licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) -- who are responsible for your everyday maintenance and care on the road to recovery.

LPNs will take your temperature and change your surgical dressings to prevent infection. They'll make sure you’re comfortable and that your recovery goes according to plan. They'll even help you take your first postoperative bath.

Lodging managers oversee the day-to-day workings of hotels and motels. They supervise such departments as front-desk operations, housekeeping, and food services.

People on vacation enjoy being pampered. They want extra pillows, plush towels, and delicious chocolates to appear like magic. Others travel for business. They need basic office services, such as Internet access, fax machines, and conference rooms, so they can get their work done efficiently.

Lodging managers work hard to make sure their hotels provide the experience their guests expect -- so those guests will return year after year.

Management consultants think about ways to increase a company's profits and productivity. Their goal is to make a business more successful and competitive.

Do you get a rush from solving a problem no one else can? Do people come to you for help and advice when they get into complicated situations? If so, you might be cut out for a career as a management consultant.

Companies and other organizations hire management consultants to help them solve some of their biggest problems. Whether they need to build a new website, design a new computer system, or launch a new product, they call on management consultants to save the day.

Market and survey researchers both collect information about the public. Market researchers also analyze information, including business statistics.

How much do teens spend on video games? What kinds of movies are most popular with college students? How much is too much for a hot cup of coffee? Market researchers and survey researchers uncover the answers to questions like these. Their methods include everything from telephone and Internet surveys to focus groups to studies of past sales.

Once these answers are discovered, they're used to create better products, ad campaigns, promotions, and more. In short, it’s the mission of market and survey researchers to know everything there is to know about customer satisfaction.

Marriage and family therapists provide counseling to people in couples and families as well as one-on-one. Even when they work with people one-on-one, they focus on the person's relationship to the larger unit of the couple or family.

Anita and Juan, proud parents of four-year-old Carmen, wear frowns as they enter their therapist's office. They've been fighting a lot and speaking harshly to Carmen.

With the therapist's help, they realize they're starved for downtime. They decide to get a babysitter twice a month and to schedule free time for themselves each week. At the next session, the therapist might help the couple explore how they learned to cope with anger as children. They may identify old habits that could be getting in the way of healthy, happy family life.

Massage therapists provide therapeutic massage to clients in a variety of settings, from health clubs to hospitals to private practices.

Ahhh. A massage is one of life’s greatest pleasures. But if you would rather give than receive, consider a career in massage therapy. Be warned, however: Massage know-how is more than skin-deep.

You’ll need a thorough understanding of what lies beneath the skin and what goes on there. And massage isn’t just something you make up as you go along -- you’ll need to train in a variety of techniques such as Swedish massage and shiatsu. You’ll be on your feet a lot, and the work can be demanding. But it’s rewarding to know that you’ve helped to reduce stress, relieve aching muscles, or just make someone feel better.

Materials engineers find ways to use and improve existing materials and then come up with new ones. They work with metals, ceramics and glass, plastics, and other natural and synthetic materials.

Did you ever wonder why rubber bands stretch and string doesn’t? Which would help your golf game more, a club with a graphite shaft or one of steel? What makes something waterproof? Would you build a bridge in a cold climate out of the same material as you would in a hot place?

These are the kinds of questions that materials engineers answer. They find -- or make -- the right materials for the job. 

Mathematicians use mathematical theory, algorithms, and computers to solve problems in economics, science, engineering, and other fields.

When you think of a mathematician, you may imagine a gray-haired man standing in front of a chalkboard covered end to end with formulas. In fact, mathematicians come in all shapes and sizes. And they work with the latest computer technologies in fields as varied as business and physics.

There are two main groups of mathematicians. Theoretical mathematicians come up with new ways of thinking about quantities -- you can thank them for adding to the formulas and principles you learn in math class. Applied mathematicians, on the other hand, use math to solve practical problems in fields like computer science. The line that divides these two groups, however, often blurs.

Mechanical engineers develop, build, care for, and improve tools, machines, and systems.

Every day you come in contact with many machines. There’s the clock radio that wakes you up, and the car, bus, or bike you take to school. You use calculators, computers, stereos, and phones throughout the day. Finally, you come home and use the microwave, stove, refrigerator, and electric can opener as you help with dinner.

Our lives are a lot easier today, thanks to the mechanical engineers who imagined and built these tools. In a world where we depend on machines more than ever before, mechanical engineers keep things running.

Medical and health services managers plan, direct, and coordinate the delivery of health care in doctors' offices, hospitals, clinics, and other health care facilities. Responsibilities range from managing employees to budgeting to purchasing equipment.

The reason for your visit may well be the only thing on your mind when you go to a clinic or hospital. And if the managers at these places are doing their job right, that’s all you’ll need to think about.

Medical and health services managers work to make sure that the people who come through their doors receive the best possible care. But like other management professionals, they must also keep an eye on costs. At a time when health care in the United States is undergoing dramatic changes and health care costs continue to rise, this career presents important challenges.

Medical and public health social workers help people cope with serious illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer, and AIDS.

Our society hates to think about illness and death. We want to imagine that we'll live forever -- young and pain-free.

Medical and public health social workers are among those rare beings willing to look illness and death in the face. Sure, they do all they can to help people get well -- but when illness is terminal (deadly), they turn their attention to helping their clients die peacefully.

Medical scientists conduct research on diseases, and on the viruses and bacteria that cause them, to develop vaccines and medications.

The world’s population has grown exponentially -- from small scatterings of people to giant cities with millions of residents living side by side.

While living in large groups has its advantages, one disadvantage is that it allows diseases to spread more easily. And now, with the entire world connected by airplanes, contagious illnesses can spread across the ocean from one continent to another. Medical scientists do the research needed in the fight against disease.

Meeting and convention planners organize events for businesses and other organizations, making sure they run smoothly and meet goals.

Travel far and wide. Meet fascinating people from all over. As a meeting and convention planner, you might lead an exciting life, but there is a price to pay. You'll shoulder a lot of responsibility and work under extreme pressure.

Some of that pressure comes from juggling the countless details involved in planning an event: Have enough hotel rooms been reserved? Did the brochure make it to the printer on time? Are vegetarian lunch options included? But it's also about the big picture: What does your organization want to accomplish at the event? Will the speakers and activities you've lined up help you meet those goals?

Mental health and substance abuse social workers assess (evaluate) and treat people with mental illnesses or substance abuse problems.

Ben, a high school junior, has been referred to a social worker. He's been suspended from the swim team, he's barely passing his courses, and he downs a six-pack of beer daily.

Ben doesn't think he has a substance problem. The social worker decides to spend a few sessions asking him about his inner struggles and difficulties at home. She hopes this will lead him to notice that he's using beer to avoid his troubles. If that approach doesn't work, she'll confront Ben about his drinking and recommend that he attend a twelve-step program while continuing to see her.

Mental health counselors treat people with mental and emotional problems. They help people work through everything from job stress to marriage conflicts to suicidal impulses.

A mental health counselor meets with a small group of people with severe mental problems. At first, the counselor is very active. He asks members questions about the history of their illnesses, how they cope, and what it's like to interact with others.

Over time, the counselor says less and less, encouraging group members to ask the questions and provide support. After the sessions end, they report that their lives have improved: they have more confidence, more friends, and more fun.

Meteorologists are scientists who study the atmosphere. They examine its effects on the environment, predict the weather, or investigate climate trends.

We see them in action every evening as they forecast the future -- or at least tell us how likely it is to rain. They’re meteorologists.

But most people in this profession do not work in front of a camera. The biggest employer of meteorologists is, in fact, a government agency, the National Weather Service. And there are also plenty of businesses that hire meteorologists to help them make decisions based on the weather. Those who don’t forecast the weather conduct research, studying the atmosphere, climatic changes, or environmental problems.

Mining and geological engineers help find deposits of coal, metals, and minerals. They also design mines and mining equipment for bringing these materials to the earth. And they solve safety and environmental problems related to mining.

A lot has changed since the nineteenth century when the forty-niners panned for gold in California. Mining and geological engineers now use satellite photography and variations in the earth’s magnetic field to find new deposits of minerals. They use machines that can remove 10.8 metric tons of coal per minute.

But it’s not just about the tools. Today’s mining pros are also finding ways to mine that are safer for both mine workers and the environment.

Multimedia artists and animators create images and special effects for movies, TV shows, cartoons, computer games, and more.

In the old days, artists drew everything by hand. Some still do. But many of the animated images and special effects you see today are computer-generated. That means there’s a whole new breed of artist -- and a whole new career path to consider. With creativity and imagination, multimedia artists bring dazzling images and new sophistication to everything from cartoons to commercials.

Musicians and singers play musical instruments or sing as part of a group or solo. Many musicians and singers perform for live audiences, though others play only for recording or production studios.

What's your dream? To become a hip-hop artist in Los Angeles? A bluegrass fiddle player in Nashville? Or a star soprano with the Metropolitan Opera in New York? Whatever your goal, you'll need top technical skills, talent, stage presence, and a thick skin to put up with the intense competition. While many musicians hope to win a big solo contract with a recording studio or one of the larger record labels, the majority spend most of their time working in ensembles, rehearsing, and performing live.

Network and computer systems administrators install, configure (set up to work in a particular way), support, and repair computer systems for businesses and other organizations.

At every office -- whether business, nonprofit, or government agency -- the story's the same: work can grind to a halt when something goes wrong with the computer system. That's reason enough to keep hundreds of thousands of professionals busy making sure that those systems continue to run at their best. Network and computer system administrators, sometimes called network technicians, monitor networks and adjust their performance as needed. 

Network systems and data communications analysts plan, design, build, maintain, and test networks and other data communications systems.

As a network systems and data communications analyst, you'll play a crucial role in the workplace, making it possible for others to do their jobs. Without networks -- and analysts -- computers would be unable to share information. Also called network architects and network engineers, analysts make sure that emails can be sent and received, employees can work together on the same document, and private information is protected from prying eyes.

Smooth day-to-day operations are only the beginning, though. In this job, you'll also strive to predict the future needs of your users and improve the network so that it can meet those needs.

News analysts, reporters, and correspondents gather information and prepare stories for broadcast (TV and radio), print (newspapers and magazines), and online media.

If you’re a news junkie -- or just someone with insatiable curiosity -- a media job may be your calling. But be ready to fly by the seat of your pants, because some days you’ll feel like you’re part of a three-ring circus. 

News analysts, also called newscasters, interpret news from outside sources and broadcast it on radio or TV. Reporters gather the facts themselves, writing stories for print or broadcast. Correspondents serve a similar function, but are stationed in specific cities. Whatever your role, you’ll sweat bullets to gather the facts and deliver on deadline. But if you love the thrill of the chase and have strong communication skills, you may be made for this line of work.

Nuclear engineers find ways to use nuclear energy (produced when atoms split or, potentially, when they fuse) and radiation.

No longer the stuff of science fiction, nuclear power provides electricity for much of the world, and scientists are even working on nuclear-powered rockets. What’s more, radiation has many medical uses. It allows us to treat cancer and to see inside the human body without surgery.

Nuclear engineers still face many challenges, however. What should we do with the radioactive waste created by nuclear reactors? How can we prevent accidents at nuclear reactors? If you become a nuclear engineer, you can join in the search for solutions.

Nuclear medicine technologists give patients radiopharmaceuticals and then make images of the drugs as they collect in the inner organs. Physicians use these images to diagnose illness.

Radiation is a fascinating form of energy. Despite its dangers, it is a powerful part of today’s medical efforts. It can reveal tiny parts of the body, such as blood vessels in the kidney or liver, without surgery.

Nuclear medicine technologists (NMTs) use drugs that give off radiation and complex equipment to make images of internal organs. Doctors then look at the images to find out what’s wrong with their patients. The work of NMTs is precise and exacting because lives depend on it.

Occupational health and safety specialists promote better health and safety in work environments and prevent harm to workers and the general public. They also enforce air quality and environmental regulations.

As an occupational health and safety specialist, your job will be to make sure that working conditions are as safe as possible. You may inspect and enforce safety standards on assembly lines or protect workers against biohazardous waste in hospitals. You may inspect safety standards at nuclear power plants or within public schools.

The job may also require studying, redesigning, and updating working environments. And if an accident occurs, occupational health and safety specialists help investigate possible causes and recommend corrective action.

Occupational therapists help people who have learning disabilities, physical handicaps, illnesses, and other conditions master everyday tasks, from shopping for groceries to walking with crutches.

It takes enormous patience to work with the physically handicapped, the mentally ill, or anyone struggling with the tasks of daily life. But as an occupational therapist (OT), you can find great satisfaction in helping them live more independently.

Whether you’re teaching a stroke survivor to use a walker, modifying school equipment for a disabled child, or helping the victim of a car accident to get behind the wheel again, one thing is certain: you’ll make a difference.

Operations research analysts use math and computers to develop software and other tools that managers use to make decisions.

Imagine it’s your job to put together this season’s schedule for your favorite Major League Baseball team. Before you decide that’s an easy job, consider these rules: Your team has to play 81 games at home and 81 games on the road. It has to play each of the teams in its division 19 times. And don’t forget travel -- you can’t have your team flying from the East Coast to the West Coast every other day.

Complex problems like this come up all the time. Operations research analysts find ways to solve them. Their work is used by managers in all sorts of industries, whether the goal is to schedule airline pilots to prevent dangerous fatigue or time traffic lights to prevent congestion.

Park rangers carry out plans to manage natural resources, enforce rules, and educate the public to ensure the protection of natural resources and cultural and historical monuments.

Park rangers protect natural resources and historical and cultural monuments. They work in places across the country, from Alcatraz and the Grand Canyon to the Everglades and the Statue of Liberty. Most do everything from supervising park staff to teaching the public to value the site’s resources.

After getting experience in the field, a ranger might specialize. With a focus on conserving natural resources, for example, a ranger might replant native grasses on a prairie or test water samples to find the source of pollution. Whatever their duties, rangers need to be able to communicate well with the public. 

Petroleum engineers search for oil and gas. They design ways to remove as much as possible from the earth and to turn it into fuel we can use.

The United States gets about 63 percent of its energy from oil and natural gas. That means that there’s a constant race to find new sources of petroleum and natural gas, get them out of the earth, and process them.

Today’s petroleum engineers are using the latest high-tech equipment to do just that. They keep homes heated, cars running, and stoves burning.

Pharmacists prepare and distribute medications prescribed by doctors and other health practitioners. They advise patients on the drugs they take and make sure that they avoid dangerous drug interactions.

When you imagine pharmacists at work, do you see them counting out pills and filling bottles? That’s actually only a small part of a pharmacist’s job.

These professionals play a key role in the treatment of disease. They advise both doctors and patients about the dosages, interactions, and side effects of medications. In fact, pharmacists don’t only work at the corner drugstore. You’ll also find them researching new medications for drug companies or monitoring drug therapy at hospitals, nursing homes, and mental health institutions.

Photographers use their artistic eye and technical know-how to capture the moment digitally or on film.

Photography careers come in as many shapes and sizes as photographs. Staff photographers work in settings that range from the newsroom to the portrait studio. Other photographers, such as those who work at weddings, run their own businesses.

There’s a lot more to photography than pointing and shooting. You’ll have to learn the technical ropes and develop an eye for the perfect picture. Competition for artsy careers like this one is always stiff, but if you don’t mind putting in the hours, it might be worth a shot.

PTs prevent and treat conditions that limit a person's ability to move and function.

Seniors recovering from hip-replacement surgery, newborns with birth defects, athletes with injuries, young adults with brain disorders: All of these people have trouble using their muscles. And they can all improve with the help of physical therapists (PTs).

These health professionals use exercises, heat, cold, and other techniques to get their patients moving again. They also teach them how to get around using crutches, wheelchairs, and other devices. As a PT, you’ll do more than devise a treatment plan -- you’ll serve as teacher, coach, and confidant, too.

Physician assistants practice medicine under a doctor's supervision, doing almost everything that doctors do.

You won’t have a “Dr.” in front of your name as a physician assistant (PA). But it’s the next best thing to being there. As a PA, you’ll do much of what doctors do, from giving checkups and diagnosing illness to prescribing medication. While technically you’ll be under a doctor’s supervision, you’ll work very independently most of the time.

If you’re passionate about health care and have the personality and desire to be out there on the front lines, becoming a physician assistant may be just the path for you.

Physicists study the laws and structures of all that exists in the universe, including gravity and other natural forces. Astronomers use physics to study space and the bodies within it, like planets and stars.

The Milky Way galaxy is a collection of billions of stars, including our planet, our moon, and our sun at its outer edge. Physicists and astronomers use the theories of physics to study the galaxy and everything in it, from the mysterious black holes that may result when giant stars collapse to the movement of electrons.

Of course, no one physicist or astronomer studies everything in the galaxy. If you choose this field, you’ll specialize in an area such as nuclear physics or astrobiology. As an astronomer or physicist, you’ll come up with your own theories and create experiments to see if they’re correct. 

Pig and poultry farmers raise pigs or chickens and other fowl for maximum health and yield, making sure they meet health regulations.

While an egg may be the most beautifully simple design in nature, producing one is no simple task. Laying hens need the right mix of nutrients, lighting, ventilation, and water to produce a good egg. Like poultry farmers, pig farmers must make sure their animals get the food, water, and medicine they need.

Many pig and poultry farmers are finding a new niche, specializing in organic chickens or pigs, offering free-range eggs or hormone-free pork to shoppers. 

Political scientists study the way people organize their societies, whether neighborhoods, nations, or the world community.

How does the government decide how much pollution industry can release into the air and water? What’s the best way for local mayors to convince voters to reelect them? Why do some people vote and not others? How does democracy differ in countries across the globe?

Political scientists study political systems from every angle, looking into their birth, growth, and operation. While most strive to discover the trends that shape our identity, their interests and jobs vary greatly. For example, some survey the public about their political opinions; others use math to analyze election results.

Postsecondary teachers instruct students in a wide range of academic and career-oriented subjects beyond the high school level. Such teachers include college and university professors, career and technical education instructors, and graduate teaching assistants.

A professor stands in a darkened auditorium before 150 scribbling students and projects images of paintings on a screen, commenting on each. In a small room on the other side of campus, a graduate student writes an equation on a chalkboard, asking for questions. Across town, a teacher surrounded by a gaggle of adults lifts the hood of a car to describe the engine. These scenes may differ, but the instructors share the same career: they're all postsecondary teachers.

Preserve managers oversee the care of land set aside to protect natural resources. They also represent preserve owners to the public.

Preserve managers care for land that’s been set aside to protect natural resources, such as trees and animals. They use a wide range of skills, from a grasp of science to a talent for communication.

In this field, you'll oversee people who gather data on plants and animals and restore the land and water on your preserve. You'll write reports on research findings. And you'll deal with administrative duties, such as supervising staff, and write brochures and other materials for the public. You'll also get your hands dirty, repairing equipment, maintaining trails, and removing plants that aren't native to the area.

Priests are Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Anglican religious leaders who have been ordained (officially appointed) by their churches.

Although you might see priests only on Sunday mornings in church, they actually lead very busy lives. They might be up at dawn to lead morning mass. At lunchtime, they might be leading discussions at schools about the challenges of faith. And rather than relaxing in front of an evening TV show, they may be visiting the homes of church members.

Priests believe deeply in God and feel that serving other people is the best way to serve God.

Private-practice lawyers work in law firms or are self-employed. Transactional lawyers work to avoid legal problems, for example, by writing contracts. Litigators, or trial lawyers, deal with problems, such as broken contracts, once they've occurred.

"Lizzie Borden took an axe / And gave her mother forty whacks. / When she saw what she had done, / She gave her father forty-one." Although this ditty sounds certain, Borden’s defense attorney was good enough to prove reasonable doubt.

Prosecutors in the famous 1893 trial introduced evidence that included powerful details. For example, Borden burned the dress she wore the day of the deed, and prosecutors argued that she did so because it was stained with blood. But the defense team -- using for the most part the prosecution's own witnesses -- shot down every attempt to pin the dastardly deed on Borden. In the end, she walked free.

Probation officers supervise convicted criminals who have been given probation (the chance to live in the community) instead of or in addition to a prison or jail sentence. Correctional treatment specialists work in jails or prisons, helping inmates prepare for life after they're released.

According to Gallup polls in recent years, there's a growing perception in the United States that criminal activity is rising. That's despite government reports that violent and property crime rates have remained low. However, one fact most of us know is that a larger percentage of people in the United States are being locked up than ever before.

Probation officers and correctional treatment specialists play a vital role in helping decide who stays behind bars and who goes free.

Program directors choose the content of radio and television shows to meet their audience's needs.

Teenagers generally don’t watch the same television shows as Wall Street executives, and most kids don’t listen to the same radio stations as their parents. No one knows this better than program directors, whose job it is to analyze the media market and plan their programs accordingly. By knowing their audiences inside and out, program directors decide which songs to play or which television shows to air -- and when to do it. An MTV reality show does better at 9 p.m. than at 9 a.m., for example.

Protestant ministers are religious leaders who have been ordained (officially appointed) by the Protestant denomination (subgroup) to which they belong.

In 1517, in what is now Germany, Roman Catholic priest Martin Luther got so mad at what he saw as weaknesses in Catholicism that he nailed a list of complaints called the "95 Theses" onto a church door.

Luther didn't want to break away from Catholicism; he just wanted to improve it. But his action set off a chain of events that eventually led to a new form of Christianity called Protestantism. This belief system spread around the world and is still going strong today.

Psychiatrists are doctors who specialize in the physical causes and effects of mental illness. Some focus on talk therapy, helping patients heal through talking about their problems, and others focus on treating illness with medication. Many combine these approaches.

The granddaddy of psychiatry is Sigmund Freud, born in 1856. Freud came up with many concepts that are now a part of psychiatry -- and of popular culture. These include the ego, the unconscious, the slip of the tongue, and repression. Freud invented psychoanalysis ("the talking cure"). And he didn't just talk the talk; he walked the walk, doing self-analysis to test out his ideas.

Although many of his controversial ideas have been rejected by today’s psychiatrists, Freud left behind a body of work that still grips our cultural imagination.

Public accountants provide a broad range of accounting, auditing, tax, and consulting services to their clients, who may be corporations, governments, nonprofits, or individuals.

Every business is required by law to file paperwork with the government. That includes the tax statements they turn in to the Internal Revenue Service. As a public accountant, you may create and file such reports.

On the other hand, you can specialize in external audits. In that case, you’ll examine a company's financial statements and reporting procedures to ensure truth and accuracy.

Public interest advocates work to affect government policies and raise public awareness concerning issues that they believe are in the public interest.

How do voters decide what to vote for? How do legislators decide what to sign into law?

If you choose to become a public interest advocate, you'll get to affect both groups. You'll work for an organization that represents a cause you believe in, such as abortion rights or gun control. You'll research your issue. Then, armed with facts, you'll work to get voters and legislators to support your position.

Public interest lawyers bring lawsuits that work to get positive results for a large class, or group, of people. They work for organizations such as Environmental Defense and the National Center for Youth Law.

American schools, like much of society, used to be segregated. Children of color couldn't attend schools for whites. And schools for kids of color usually had fewer resources than white schools.

In the 1940s and 1950s, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) organized some legal cases to challenge this policy. These cases were eventually combined into one case, Brown v. Board of Education. On May 17, 1954, the NAACP won -- inspiring struggles for justice around the country and the world.

PR specialists promote people and organizations. They work in a variety of settings, from corporations to government agencies. Many serve private clients.

When celebrities go into drug rehab or when businesses are guilty of fraud, there’s only one thing to do: hire a public relations (PR) specialist. PR specialists do more than put a positive spin on their client’s less-than-admirable activities. They also spread the word when they’ve done something good, like winning an Academy Award or donating money to a charity.

And how do PR specialists get the word out? They spend much of their time writing press releases and pitching story ideas to reporters.

Rabbis are clergy (religious leaders) who have been ordained (officially appointed) by the Jewish denomination to which they belong.

Jewish religious services differ radically depending on the denomination, or subgroup.

In Orthodox synagogues, for example, men and women sit in separate sections, heads covered. They chant the same Hebrew prayers that Jews chanted more than two thousand years ago. In Reform services, everyone sits together, most heads are bare, and most of the service is in English.

Whatever the denomination, there's usually a rabbi present, guiding members in worship.

Ranchers raise cattle for beef, sheep for wool and meat, and other hoofed animals.

The invention of barbed wire in 1874 changed the landscape of the West from open range patrolled by roaming cowboys to the ranches we know today. The life of a rancher has changed, too. Overgrazing has led to more environmental regulations and a growing interest in raising nontraditional animals such as bison.

But it doesn’t matter whether you raise Holstein cattle or llamas. You’ll still be responsible for the health of your animals and the profitability of your business.   

Real estate brokers and sales agents are paid to sell other people's properties, from farms to condos. They also help buyers find the properties they're looking for.

Everyone needs a place to live, shop, and work. But who do you call when you need help finding your dream home or the ideal office space? That’s when real estate brokers and agents come in handy.

These professionals spend endless hours scouring cities and towns, studying buildings and neighborhoods, and assessing property values. Why? To find the perfect place for their client.

Recreation and fitness workers plan and lead activities. They work in local playgrounds and recreation areas, parks, community centers, health and fitness clubs, religious centers, camps, theme parks, and tourist attractions.

Richard Simmons and the latest supermodel with a workout video may have little in common, but they both get people off the couch and reaching for the sky. Like them, recreation and fitness workers motivate people of all walks of life.

It’s not all about health, though. Whether they’re training runners for a 10K, teaching senior citizens Tai Chi, or taking campers horseback riding, recreation and fitness workers help people meet a wide range of personal goals -- and have fun while they’re at it.

Recreational therapists provide treatment via recreation activities to people with disabilities or illnesses. Using activities that range from arts and crafts, movement, and games to interaction with animals, they help people improve their mental, physical, and emotional well-being.

James, who has advanced cancer, lives in a hospice (a home for people with fatal illnesses). His hair has fallen out as a result of chemotherapy. James is always sullen when he shows up for art therapy sessions.

One day he paints an unusual picture of a featherless bird. When the therapist gently comments on the similarity with James's appearance, he breaks down in tears. From that moment, James begins to open up and face the terrifying prospect of death, inspiring those around him with his courage.

RNs provide patients with direct care and help doctors. They are also health educators, working with individuals and communities to prevent illness and improve health.

TV programs portray nurses as the backbone of a hospital. They pick up the slack when medical students are lost and often go beyond the call of duty to meet patient needs. Nursing may not always be as exciting as it seems on TV, but there’s truth to these dramas.

No less important is the work of registered nurses (RNs) in home care and nursing home settings.  Regardless of where they’re employed, RNs play a critical role helping doctors take care of patients.

Rehabilitation counselors help people with disabilities caused by illnesses, accidents, birth defects, or stress. They provide counseling and help people get needed services, learn skills, find jobs, and live on their own.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt helped pull the U.S. out of the Great Depression and led the nation through World War II. Yet, because of the disease polio, he couldn't walk on his own. He believed -- probably correctly -- that the nation would not easily accept his disability. So he hid it, leaning on others when he appeared in public.

Rehabilitation counselors help people with disabilities accept themselves and live full lives that include work. In doing so, they help create a more just world for us all.

Research psychologists study how humans feel, think, learn, and act. They also study physical problems with the brain and work to develop treatments for problems such as memory loss.

In 1961-62, psychologist Stanley Milgram conducted some disturbing experiments. He asked subjects (participants) to give electric shocks to their partners whenever the partners answered questions incorrectly. As the voltage increased, the partners begged to stop -- but experimenters told the subjects to continue. Sixty-five percent of subjects continued, even when their partners screamed in agony.

The partners were actors who only pretended to receive shocks; they faked their agonized screams -- but the subjects didn’t know that. The experiments were criticized as being unethical. Yet many subjects thanked Milgram for revealing the frailty of human kindness.

Sales engineers use their background in engineering to sell complex products and services. They also help customers choose, customize, and, troubleshoot products.

Suppose you own a toy factory. You have many decisions to make: Which electronic parts will give your toys that added zing? Should you use polystyrene or polyethylene to package them? And just how much RAM do your managers need in their computers?

Don’t worry -- you’ll get plenty of help from sales engineers who, in their efforts to sell products, will advise you on the details of each purchase decision.

A sales worker supervisor heads up the sales team and keeps an eye on inventory.

Whether they run the corner grocery or a gourmet supermarket, a fancy boutique or a discount department store, all retailers try to sell their products and services to customers. Customers, for their part, want their experiences with the sales staff to be positive.

As a sales worker supervisor, you’ll need to do more than make sure that products are sold -- you’ll need to make sure that customers are happy and want to return.

School psychologists work in elementary, middle, and high schools or school district offices to solve students' learning and behavior problems.

Fourth-grader Monica rarely seems to listen to her teacher. Instead of doing assignments, she fiddles with her pencil. Yet Monica did great in third grade.

The school psychologist meets with Monica's parents and learns that her older brother has recently developed cancer. The parents, busy with medical appointments, often leave Monica with a babysitter. The psychologist explains the impact of this crisis on Monica. Together, they plan ways for her to get the attention and support she needs. She becomes noticeably more engaged in class.

Science technicians focus on the practical matters of scientific experimentation and research. They maintain equipment and instruments, record data, and help scientists calculate results and draw conclusions.

When you think of science, do you imagine a complex chemistry experiment complete with test tubes, beakers, and flasks? Or maybe you see a large radio telescope, scanning the sky for signs of alien intelligence.

Science technicians maintain complicated instruments like these and make sure that experiments run smoothly.

Set designers plan, design, and oversee the construction of sets for theatrical, motion picture, and TV productions.

Gritty city street or lush green countryside. Lively medieval marketplace or sleek suburban shopping mall. If you’ve ever been amazed at the look of a movie or play, you’ve been under the spell of a talented designer.

Set designers establish the physical worlds of plays, movies, and TV shows, setting the mood, time, and place of the story. They work with directors, other designers, and technicians to make a strong visual impact.

Sociologists study people and the behavior within the social groups that they form. They also study social institutions such as religion and law.

Socio- comes from the Latin word socius, which means “companion.” As a sociologist, you’ll study people as companions, the ways in which they live, work, and play together.

You’ll also examine the problems, from family arguments at the dinner table to violent crime, that occur within groups. Your research might  be used by governments and organizations that help people live and work together better.

Software developers combine their expertise in computer science, engineering, and math to design, develop, and test software for home, school, and business use.

You’re on vacation with your family, and just as you lie down on the beach, it hits you -- you forgot to mail those bills your mom asked you to drop in the mailbox as you ran for the bus the other day. Not to worry, thanks to a software developer (and a nearby Internet cafe), your mom can pay those same bills online and avoid any late fees.

Software developers instruct computers how to perform functions like online bill paying through step-by-step processes of programming and problem solving.

Special education teachers teach children who have special learning needs or problems such as trouble speaking. Most teach students in elementary, middle, and high schools, though some work with infants and toddlers.

The fairy-tale author Hans Christian Anderson had dyslexia, a learning disability that makes reading difficult. Others who have struggled with dyslexia include Albert Einstein, Walt Disney, Whoopi Goldberg, Tom Cruise, and Magic Johnson. If you listed all the people with special learning needs who have made important contributions to society, you'd fill a book.

Do you love to help others? Are you tolerant of people who learn differently and sometimes behave differently? If so, you might consider becoming a special education teacher.

Speech-language pathologists and audiologists assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent speech and hearing problems caused by accidents, diseases, and genetic disorders.

A three-year-old boy, diagnosed with autism, has never uttered a word. A sixty-year-old woman is recovering from a severe stroke and must learn to speak again. Although you relate to them differently, you'll teach both language skills using many of the same techniques.

Speech-language pathologists and audiologists work not only with a variety of clients but also in a wide range of settings, including schools, hospitals, and doctors’ offices. Some even choose to conduct research into speech and hearing.

Speech-language pathology assistants help people with a range of speech problems.

You may find the stuttering cartoon character Porky Pig amusing, but to many children and adults who stutter, he’s no joke. Speech-language pathology assistants work under the supervision of speech-language pathologists to help people control their stuttering or other speech problems. They work in settings that range from hospitals to schools, guiding clients through documented treatment plans.

Statisticians use math and computers to collect, study, and report on data.

Whether we know it or not, we rely on statisticians every day. A corporation that processes food, for example, might pay for a survey of families with two working parents to find out what new products they’d like to see in the frozen-food aisle. A drug company, on the other hand, must collect and study data when they test experimental drugs to make sure that they work and that they’re safe. And at a TV network, statisticians can use a technique called sampling to discover what the whole country is watching just by surveying a small group of viewers.

And that’s just in the business world. These masters of data can use their skills in fields as varied as medical research, public health, and economics.

Surgeons are doctors who treat and correct injuries, diseases, and deformities by operating on patients.

When our brain works properly, when our heart pumps normally, and when our bones and muscles move with ease, we are barely aware of just how remarkable a machine the body is. But when something goes wrong and that machine breaks down, the mechanic you need is often a surgeon. Surgeons mend bone and tissue and repair major organs damaged by disease and injury.

Surgical technologists ensure the safety of patients; sterilize instruments; and handle special equipment, drugs, and supplies during surgery.

Nowhere is teamwork needed more than in the operating room. And the surgical technologist is a key member of the team.

Doctors, nurses, and patients depend on the sterile field that the surgical technologist sets up and enforces. Techs also stock the blood and other surgical supplies. Through all stages of the operation, the tech is there to assist, predicting what will be needed next, while keeping track of the patient's condition.

Technical writers create material, such as instruction manuals, related to science and technology.

Computer software and hardware, cars, stereos, and many other products come with instructions. Technical writers create operating instructions and other informational material, such as maintenance manuals, catalogs, parts lists, and assembly instructions.

This information not only allows consumers to use and maintain products easily and safely, but also protects manufacturers from being sued. If you enjoy writing and are curious about developments in science and technology, this field might be for you.

Theater, film, and TV technicians are craftspeople who work in stage, film, and TV productions building and decorating sets, setting up lighting and sound, and making costumes.

Maybe you got your first taste of the theater as a stagehand in a high school production of Oklahoma! Or maybe it’s the sparkle of Hollywood that’s grabbed your attention. If you love being part of a spirited, hardworking team and want to work on projects you can see and touch, this could be the career for you.

While technicians often specialize in particular areas, it takes a lot of flexibility to build a career. The more you can do, from wiring lights to building flats, the more work you’ll find -- especially early on in your career.

Top executives run businesses and other organizations. Combining knowledge of the field with business skills, they attempt to lead their organizations to success.

What does it take to reach the top? Carly Fiorina knows. She is the former chief executive officer (CEO) of Hewlett-Packard Company. Fiorina majored in medieval history and philosophy in college. She tried law school but hated it. Instead, she went into business and quickly became a rising star.

As Hewlett-Packard's CEO, she helped the company merge with another computer company, Compaq. Many people see this as the most successful high-tech merger in history -- and they see Fiorina as one of the brightest lights in the business world.

Trainers provide a range of educational services to managers and their staff.

As you know from your own experience, people learn in a variety of settings, and some of the best teachers don’t even work in schools. Trainers work for businesses and other organizations, providing people with the tools to be more successful on the job.

As a trainer, you might coach managers on their people skills and help customer-service representatives improve their phone skills -- all on the same day. Or you might specialize, making it your business to introduce employees to new software, the rules of grammar, or the importance of teamwork.

Translators read written materials, which can range from poetry to technical manuals, in one language and write them in another.

Translators often describe their work as a labor of love and it’s true that translating a great novel into another language can be almost as satisfying as though you had written it yourself. However, translators also do the necessary work of translating technical manuals, business memos, news stories, and government documents, without which the global economy would probably grind to a halt. Whether you translate poetry or scientific reports, translating requires creative thinking, research, and determination.  

Travel agents help people plan trips all over the world.

The world’s busiest airport is in Atlanta: an average of 2,400 flights come and go each day. England is packed with more than 1,400 castles. And you can sail across the Atlantic Ocean in only six days.

These are the kinds of facts that travel agents are paid to know. Whether they’re finding a fancy hotel or a cheap flight, booking an African safari or a Swedish massage, travel agents are travel gurus. They get paid to guide clients through the maze of the travel industry.

Urban and regional planners help communities decide on the best use of land. They find places to build homes and businesses, deal with transportation issues, and study the environmental effects of possible projects.

It’s a hot day, and you wish your town would hurry up and build that pool everyone keeps talking about. But where should it be built? What land is available? How will people get there? How would building it affect the local wildlife? What do you say to neighbors who worry about noise and traffic? As an urban or regional planner, it would be your job to help the town answer all of these questions -- and many more.

As the nation’s population grows, so do our cities and suburbs. Planners play a key role in managing that growth. They help keep communities safe, livable places and work to improve them.

Veterinarians prevent, diagnose, and treat illness in small animals (such as cats and dogs), large animals (such as horses and cows), or both. They may also research diseases and their cures.

If you’ve ever pulled a thorn from a dog’s paw, you know the satisfaction that comes from making an animal feel better. But if you’ve ever given a cat a pill, you also know that it’s not easy to tell an animal what’s best for it.

As a veterinary student, you’ll learn about more than the health problems of animals. You'll also learn how to diagnose patients who can’t explain their own symptoms.

You may be surprised to learn that people skills are a must for veterinarians. That's because for every animal a vet treats, there's a human standing by. In fact, one of the hardest things vets have to do is tell someone it’s time to let go of a sick pet.

Veterinary technologists and technicians help veterinarians provide medical care to animals and run veterinary practices. Veterinary technologists also work in research laboratories with scientists.

Veterinary technologists and technicians don’t go through the many years of medical and scientific training that veterinarians do, but they work just as closely with animals.

Much like nurses who help doctors during surgeries and make sure that patients are comfortable, veterinary techs assist veterinarians. They do so in a variety of ways, from vaccinating dogs and x-raying cats to sterilizing medical instruments and cleaning cages.

Web designers combine art skills with business savvy to create the look and feel, as well as structure, of websites that are both eye-pleasing and user-friendly.

Do you prefer Google or Yahoo? The websites in your “favorites” list are there for a reason -- probably a combination of visual appeal and usability. Creating that perfect combination is what Web designers do for a living. By using type (lettering), images, and other visual devices, Web designers create a digital playground where consumers can find the information they need while enjoying the ride.

Wildlife technicians perform many duties to gather data on animals and to carry out management plans for wildlife and natural areas.

Wildlife technicians do whatever it takes to help wildlife biologists and conservation scientists. These scientists make management decisions about wild animals and natural resources. Technicians help them gather data and carry out their plans.

As a wildlife technician, you might track, trap, and tag animals or take surveys of them from a small plane. You might plant native grasses to restore a natural area or extract eggs in a fish hatchery. You might travel on snowshoes, work on a boat, or handle an all-terrain vehicle. Whatever tasks you do, you'll help wildlife professionals make smart decisions that will affect the Earth's future.

Writers develop text for publications, such as books, magazines, websites, and newsletters. They also create material for radio and TV broadcasts, movies, and plays.

Writers work in many places, from magazines to corporations to home offices. They create articles and nonfiction books, newsletters for nonprofits, annual reports for big companies, and scripts for TV and radio shows, just to name a few possibilities.

If you dream of writing a story, poem, or play that will live on long after you do, you may have to do so just for the joy of it -- and find a day job to make ends meet. If you’re also interested in writing nonfiction and develop a specialty in, for example, business, fashion, or sports, you may find that getting paid to write is an easier goal to reach.

Links to More AP Pages